February 27, 2014
The first political scientist known to analyze information systematically was the Greek philosopher Aristotle. He compared the constitutions of Greek city-states during the 4th century BC and generalized about the political consequences of the different constitutional systems. The study of political science flourished in ancient Greece during the 5th and 4th centuries BC, in the Roman republic from 509 to 31 BC, in the republics of Italy during the 15th and 16th centuries, amid the political turmoil of 17th century Britain, and during the French and American revolutions toward the end of the 18th century. While the specific methods employed by political scientists throughout the centuries varied tremendously, their common concerns have been to provide useful advice to rulers and to organize governments more effectively.
Political Science is the systematic study of and reflection upon politics. Politics usually describes the processes by which people and institutions exercise and resist power. Political processes are used to formulate policies, influence individuals and institutions, and organize societies …political scientists also study politics in other contexts, such as how politics affects the economy, how ordinary people think and act in relation to politics, and how politics influences organizations outside of government…Political scientists interested in public administration study government organizations and their relation to other parts of government. Political scientists investigate how these organizations work, and try to devise methods of improving them.
The field of public policy involves the study of specific policy problems and governmental responses to them. Political scientists involved in the study of public policy attempt to devise solutions for problems of public concern. They study issues such as health care, pollution, and the economy. Public policy overlaps comparative politics in the study of comparative public policy; with international relations in the study of foreign policy and national security policy; and with political theory in considering ethics in policy making.
Political behavior involves the study of how people involve themselves in political processes and respond to political activity. The field emphasizes the study of voting behavior, which can be affected by social pressures; the effects of individual psychology, such as emotional attachments to parties or leaders; and the rational self-interests of voters. The results of these studies are applied during the planning of political campaigns, and influence the design of advertisements and party platforms.
Political scientists who oppose this scientific emphasis argue that politics is highly complex and variable, continually changing as new events unfold, and driven by unpredictable human actions. They argue that any rigidly scientific approach can only yield trivial results. They point out that their more scientific colleagues have not had much success in developing general laws of political science, let alone making predictions based on such laws. For example, not one political scientist predicted the breakup of the Soviet bloc in 1989 and end of the Soviet Union
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When the right public administration and policy is organized, the foremost important aspect of those who organize public administration is the installation and securing of power and authority amongst the public and, thus, they at firs design means and strategies of securing power by laws, rules and policies amongst the society so that they can regulate the activities of society under controlled and governed environment. What makes the public and the government integrate is politics and political system and ideology although it is not the public that choose the political system and machinery.
While this is the case, when public policy is designed to any given people, is this to adjust or fix the policy in terms of culture and people behavior or to bring change and transformations into the public thinking and environment. When such policy is designed to compromise between laws and culture, it is under challenge and jeopardy. This is like on the relationships that exist in the history of one honey bee that happens to resemble like a fly and die finally as being a fly,itself, in which when policy or constitution or law is adopted is this to convert the fly to honey bee or the reverse. One of the things one hears in here and other places are that most states copy and paste policies from outside and adjust to the behavior or politics of their respective people accordingly.
When any government is designed to have a particular policy, it is to the best interests and advantages of the public since the purpose and mission of any specific policy is clear due to the fact that it has purpose and direction and it ideally describes the best intention of the administrators who represent the public although the actual story on the ground could be different story. When policies or laws are formulated and cancelled before their implementations and practice; the administrative machinery has big problem since it cannot see the future at least for year. One heard that there are laws or policies formulated, but canceled before they are put to practice which tells the maturity and grasp of political leaders and their respective advisers as well.
When any given political leaders are ruled and governed by public gossips, it is one of the signs of weaknesses and indicators as to the lack of principles and right doctrines it inculcates within the society in which easily frustrates and get confused out of rumors and gossips and could get removed by gossips and rumors as well. This does not mean that all rumors and gossips are wrong, but they are one source of information and way of obtaining information for decision making, they can serve as raw data and get further processed so that right decision can be made.
One of the interesting aspect of politics, government and people are they are highly interested in rumors and gossips in which when they want to do something different, they at first spread rumors then they publicize it as law or policy. The first reason why they just spread the rumor is that they are not sure on the impact of the law or the policy that could possibly affect the life of the public and the first thing they do is they just check the heartbeat of the public by gossiping that this kind of law is going to be released or issued, then they check the blood pressure and heartbeat of the society, when it sounds controllable, they publicly issue and address thru official media and they later communicate officially to the public.
The other interesting about such relationship and communication is that they communicate in very different way than the official way of communication in which the public is always alert on what is going on behind the law or policies and they understand and or they become suspicious of any ruling or law or policy is formulated and they interpret and understand,in their own style and accent than those who formulate, and what is written between the lines and few understand the drama and theater behind the stage new ruling or policy since they are part of such drama or they have certain experience in relation to that given incident on why such ruling is required.
Although it is not possible to invent new discovery or policy in relation to create better romanticism between politics, government and people, the thing that interconnect and communicate such aspects of lives are laws and policies since it is the only way that politicians secure power amongst the society in which one could wonder who is the leader, is this the public, politics or people or conditions or situations that affect the political dynamics of a nation whose authors are members of the government or it is the need created by the public that give birth to such desire and need which drive the political condition that dictate the government.
Basically, political policies are dictated by incidents than the claim they do since things in most cases are running out of controlling of the ruler and they justify whatever deviations they face with making plastic surgeries on the claims they do and the interpret and understand in way that incidents merit their policies or whatever claims they do. The all kinds of philosophies and political trend states practice shift from one aspect to another due to the fact that it is one factor, people behavior and thinking is another element, conditions and situation such as for instance technology and other new advancements humanity is going to have an impact on the thinking machinery of the political framework and make up, and situations that come as unexpected and unprecedented as in the case of breakdown of USSR to different sovereign states did have an impact on many other socialist countries that made them to think and reconsider different alternatives, political agenda and result on the fabrication of new social systems and thinking machinery as well.
The idea of controlling and suppressing peoples freedom and rights is not a good idea in administering public affairs as time tells by now in which any given government cannot stay longer when it overrides the public freedom and right in which democracy is the urgent need of nations and peoples and it is not something that can be considered as luxurious item, but rather it is one of the basic needs of any given society in which the state cannot function by deleting or ignoring basic and fundamental social and public rights and freedoms.
For instance, former ideologies who failed in past such as fascism and Nazism are political systems which neglect basic and fundamental individual and social rights and but they are simply bound by ego and ambition. Fascism is modern political ideology that seeks to regenerate the social, economic, and cultural life of a country by basing it on a heightened sense of national belonging or ethnic identity. Fascism rejects liberal ideas such as freedom and individual rights, and often presses for the destruction of elections, legislatures, and other elements of democracy.National Socialism, commonly called Nazism, German political movement initiated in 1920 with the organization of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party, also called the Nazi Party. The movement culminated in the establishment of the Third Reich, the totalitarian German state led by the dictator Adolf Hitler from 1933 to 1945
However we live quite in new and different time and century in which Democracy is the urgent need of the time. This should be done not to trick outsiders or just get fake recognition from others but this should be done that it is believed that it is the genuine need of any given society should address. Democracy is a political system in which the people of a country rule through any form of government they choose to establish. In modern democracies, supreme authority is exercised for the most part by representatives elected by popular suffrage. The representatives may be supplanted by the electorate according to the legal procedures of recall and referendum, and they are, at least in principle, responsible to the electorate.
Although the current trend of defining and understanding states becoming totally different as in the case of the previous centuries and ages in which the politics that trigger any given state and integrate it with the public and the public agenda is becoming more organized and articulated in which they start interacting with civilized mindset in which they use everything and every action and reaction with standards, documented procedures and the drama of justifying and articulating laws from the government hidden pocket is becoming over and new human era in this history of political drama of is on stage and the process is already installed at international scale.
One was wondering as to the write up in here in which there are people who say, one should deliver a perspective and a direction. In the first place, one is just ordinary person. In the second place, when one delivers a direction, one should have enough facts and information about everything in which one has no clue about what is going on. In the third place, one should declare or claim station in this regard one is just ordinary man than a politician or a political scientist but s ordinary man one shares one’s view that hit on one’s head. Bearing all these ideas, it is with the intention of sharing views and reflections than waiting to claim for station or organize a political party which is not found in one’s dictionary, culture and vocabulary of life. They can wait for a thousand century in suspense movie to do what they claim.
On the way, the funny thing in here is that the opposition political parties as they claim and are labeled since they do not like or categorized under the ruling party, they do not know who the their opponents are since politics in cases is like soccer game in which one should know the opponent team make up besides getting prepared in one’s own way for the game, in which it is important to have enough information about opponent team history, arrangements and the psycho make up of those who play in the field. Otherwise, if one is breathing deep inside, one dies out of breathing problems and difficulties since one has to respire and the respiratory system should function properly.
When greater level of maturity is there, it is not political parties and those members within parties who fight, it will be programs and doctrine along with practical and tangible results seen on stage in which those who are useful and important to the public at large will be successful, without even expressing themselves before the audience since their acts and works speak louder than what they perform on stage like actors and singers. In the meantime, it is people’s charisma and aura that plays significant role in such given aspect in which how and what the president speaks and articulate is important. Although the public choice dictate over such given aspect of human lives, and most are always attracted to fake aspect of human life since they are the product of this world and they go according to how they are programmed and they are shaped to move on.